By Ling-Ling Lisa Shih
Here are some posters that can help you visualize and learn Chinese direction and location words:
The Usage of Chinese Location Words
Direction Words 方位词，共有16个：
Direction Word （东/西/南/北/前/后/左/右/上/下/里/外）+Suffixes （边/面）–》Location Word
Direction word such as 东/西/南/北/前/后 /左/右/上/下/里/外, can take both 边/面.
But the following location words have to be memorized: 旁边, 对面 ,中间, and can not be switched to other suffixes.
1、Location word used as an attributive :
Location word + 的 + noun ( “的” cannot be omitted ).
后面的一群人 Hòumian de yì qún rén: the group of people behind (the group of people which is behind)
对面的房子Duìmiàn de fángzi–the opposite house (The house which is opposite / across the way)
外边的车子 Wàibian de chēzi– the car outside (i.e. The car which is outside)
2、Location words used after a pronoun or noun, “的“ is optional.
Pron/Noun (+ 的) + location word:
你(的)后边 /学生(的)后边 ni (de) hòubian/xuésheng (de) hòubian–behind you/behind students
这个房子(的)外边 zhè ge fángzi (de) wàibian– outside this house
这座山(的)对面 zhè zuò shān (de) duìmiàn–The opposite of this mountain
1、 You can say the following phrases either way:
桌子的上(边/面) = 桌子上 Zhuōzi shàng on the table
门的后边 = 门后 Mén hòu behind the door
饭馆的前边 = 饭馆前 Fàn guǎn qián front of the restaurant
房间的里边 = 房间里 Fángjiān lǐ in the room
床的下边 = 床下 Chuángxià under the bed
沙发的旁边 = 沙发旁 Shāfā páng next to the sofa
2、Do not use direction words 里/里面/里边 with Geographical names (Country /Place) such as 中国,英国,北京,伦敦. For example:
She was working in Taiwan.
她在台北工作。Tā zài Tǎiběi gōngzuò(√)
There are many universities in the U.S.
美国有很多很好的大学。Měiguó yǒu hěnduō hěn hǎo de dàxué. (√)
3、 Some prepositions are used differently in Chinese. Where English uses “in,” Chinese may use “on” instead, for instance:
In her letter — 她的信上Tā de xìn shàng
In the book — 书上 Shū shàng
There’re some flowers on the tree. (树上有一些花。Shù shàng yǒu yīxiē huā.)
There’s a bird in the tree. (树上有一只鸟。Shù shàng yǒuyī zhǐ niǎo.)
Translate the following to Chinese:
1. Across from my school
2. The car in the back
3. The pen on the desk
4. The picture on the table
5. The people outside
6.The room in the middle
7. The birds outside
8. Under the table
9. Behind you
Can you translate the following passages into English:
- 一辆轿车停在了我的旁边，我就上车坐在后面左右摇摆，一会左，一会右，前前后后，左左右右， …
from 乾坤八针-第一章打酱油的-69书吧 （adapted for the Chinese learners)